Monday, May 25, 2020

“An international market in human organs is not only...

â€Å"An international market in human organs is not only inevitable but also desirable.† Discuss. Over the last few decades the advances made in the fields of surgical technology have led to an increase in the number of people comfortable with having an organ transplant. Every year, thousands of people, from around the world, are being added to the waiting list to receive organs. Even though the number of people willingly to donate their organs has increased due to the constant campaigns made by government and NGO’s but it is not enough to meet the rising demand for human organs. This has created an urge to find an alternative that would make up for this downfall. John Harris and Charles proposed a â€Å"strictly regulated and highly ethical†¦show more content†¦[13] Should we, as humans, really turn our backs against this? Especially since these people cannot even ask for help as they have been involved in the black market. Of course, a dangerous black market is really undesirable but then again, is it enough to settle the question of whether it paid organ don ation should be allowed. However, the case against an organs market tends to centre precisely on the question of who the vendors are likely to be. Many professors argue that now is not the right time as offering financial incentives would force the poor into selling their organs. Turning one’s poverty into an opportunity for someone is a violation of most basic standards of human ethics. [2] David argues that many times in history poor Indian peasants have had to sell their kidneys for transplants in rich First World Countries. [15] Many argue that the legal blood market in America is a perfect example of global inequality and exploitation of the poor. [7] No doubt that Poverty is the most significant factor in making a person vulnerable to coercion. Dr Francis L Delmonico, speaking on behalf of the National Kidney Foundation, said: ‘In that reality, the poor person will remain poor but lose health and maybe more than one organ in the process of a government authorized abuse of the poor for th e rich.’ Caren added on, saying that in the long run, selling organs has notShow MoreRelatedArticle: Performance Appraisal and Performance Management35812 Words   |  144 Pagesappraisal of employee’s performance is not sufficient. Employee’s contribution should be aligned with organizational objectives and strategy. Performance management eliminates the shortcomings of performance appraisal system to the some extent. Keywords: Human resource (HR), HR development, performance appraisal, performance management, performance evaluation. I. INTRODUCTION Organizations are run and steered by people. It is through people that goals are set and objectives are realized. The performanceRead MoreEssay on the Role of Women in Ancient Greece14417 Words   |  58 Pagesneighboring land and people, which fundamentally changed the marginal products of Spartan men’s and Spartan women’s labor. To exploit the potential gains from a reallocation of labor—spe cifically, to provide the appropriate incentives and the proper human capital formation—men granted women property (and other) rights. Consistent with our explanation for the rise of women’s rights, when Sparta lost the conquered land several centuries later, the rights for women disappeared. Two conclusions emerge thatRead MoreThe Philosophy of Happiness11705 Words   |  47 Pagesthe first. The definition that he offers is that happiness is the supreme good that supplies the purpose, and measures the value, of all human activity and striving. ‘It is for the sake of happiness’ he wrote ‘that we all do everything else we do’ (Aristotle, 2002, 1102a3). This seems a very sweeping statement: surely it is implausible to suggest that every human action is explicitly aimed at some single goal. Indeed, the suggestion is inconsistent with things that Aristotle says elsewhere. He doesRead MoreThe Effects of Ownership Structure, Board Effectiveness and Managerial Discretion on Performance of Listed Companies in Kenya27922 Words   |  112 Pagesof Nairobi, except in the case of brief quotations or references universally acceptable for purposes of reviews, articles or research papers. Making copies of this thesis for any purpose other than personal use is a violation of the Kenyan and International copyright laws. For further information, please contact Ongore Vincent Okoth on the following addresses: P.O. Box 18132, GPO 00100, Nairobi Kenya. Telephone: +254 2723-854 796 +254 (020)-2817154 E-mail: vongore@yahoo.coRead MoreThe Accounting Profession and Nat39077 Words   |  157 Pages EDITORIAL Like any other profession, Accounting is not static. It constantly responds to the dynamism of human existence because Accountants are by nature curious and experimental. Their curiosity causes them to enquire into the proximate problems affecting their profession and practice. Again, two great inventions that have helped accountants and indeed professionals in other fields of human endeavour are the inventions of writing and of scientific method. The continuous growth of accounting knowledgeRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pages E SSAYS ON TWENTIETH-C ENTURY H ISTORY In the series Critical Perspectives on the Past, edited by Susan Porter Benson, Stephen Brier, and Roy Rosenzweig Also in this series: Paula Hamilton and Linda Shopes, eds., Oral History and Public Memories Tiffany Ruby Patterson, Zora Neale Hurston and a History of Southern Life Lisa M. Fine, The Story of Reo Joe: Work, Kin, and Community in Autotown, U.S.A. Van Gosse and Richard Moser, eds., The World the Sixties Made: Politics and CultureRead MoreMarketing Mistakes and Successes175322 Words   |  702 Pagesentrepreneurs. A fair number of the older cases have faced significant changes in the last few years, for better or for worse, and these we have captured to add to learning insights. After so many years of investigating mistakes, and more recently successes also, it might seem a challenge to keep these new editions fresh and interesting. The joy of the chase has made this an intriguing endeavor through the decades. Still, it is always difficult to abandon interesting cases that have stimulated student discussions Read MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words   |  1056 Pagescom/college/quickstart Technical Support 24/7 FAQs, online chat, and phone support www.wileyplus.com/support Your WileyPLUS Account Manager Training and implementation support www.wileyplus.com/accountmanager MAKE IT YOURS! Fundamentals of Human Resource Management Tenth Edition David A. DeCenzo Coastal Carolina University Conway, SC Stephen P. Robbins San Diego State University San Diego, CA Tenth Edition Contributor Susan L. Verhulst Des Moines Area Community College AnkenyRead MoreThe Development, Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation of a Quality Assurance System Supporting Continuous Improvement of Higher Education in the Eastern Cape Technikon19611 Words   |  79 Pagesrelevant to the socio-economic needs of the region. The Eastern Cape Technikon serves, almost exclusively, the previously disadvantaged groups of the South African society. The Technikon believes that this is a meaningful contribution to the labour market needs of the economy and consolidation of social justice and democracy hence its emphasis on higher education provision to the poor rural communities. The geographic origins of the student population at the Eastern Cape Technikon has almost alwaysRead MoreHbr When Your Core Business Is Dying74686 Words   |  299 PagesFORETHOUGHT HBR CASE STUDY Why Didn t We Know? Ralph Hasson 45 FIRST PERSON Preparing for the Perfect Product Launch THOU SHALT †¦page 58 James P. Hackett 111 TOOL KIT The Process Audit Michael Hammer 124 BEST PRACTICE Human Due Diligence David Harding and Ted Rouse 138 144 EXECUTIVE SUMMARIES PANEL DISCUSSION There are 193 countries in the world. None of them are energy independent. So who’s holding whom over a barrel? The fact is, the vast ma jor the few

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Symptoms And Treatment Of Schizophrenia - 2218 Words

Antipsychotics And Treating Schizophrenia Mental health nursing has been around for many years. There are many individuals with different types of mental health issues. Psychosis is an umbrella branch of disorders such as delusional disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia. Schizophrenia has an onset during early adulthood or late adolescence. Every individual with schizophrenia experiences the disease differently depending on the type of schizophrenia and the treatment given. For confidentiality reasons, a pseudonym will be used in this paper as schizophrenia and its treatment is elaborated and looked at in the life of a patient named Mr. H. Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is used to classify and describe a wide range of†¦show more content†¦Schizophrenia usually starts with a high-risk period of thought disturbances or unusual ideas. Along with that, individuals experience negative symptoms such as social withdrawal, anhedonia, and low mood (Pringle, 2013, p. 505). These negative symptoms can lead to poor quality of life and are difficult to treat. In the acute phase, which begins up to two years later, positive symptoms of schizophrenia are â€Å"hallucinations (changes in perception involving any of the five sensory modalities) and delusions (unusual thoughts or beliefs)† (Pringle, 2013, p. 505). Along with positive and negative symptoms, there are cognitive symptoms and first rank symptoms. Cognitive symptoms include deficits in attention, verbal and visual learning, executive function, social cognition, processing speed, and working memory. First-rank symptoms include somatic passivity, delusional perceptions, voice s commenting on the patient’s action, audible thought, withdrawal thought, voices arguing, and passivity of impulse, volition, and affect (Giannopoulos, Carroll, Ebmeier, 2014, p. 12). These symptoms help diagnose schizophrenia. For some individuals antipsychotic medications were needed and for others, symptoms resolved quickly. Intervention When it comes to treatment for schizophrenia, there are many different antipsychotic medications that can be administered to patients. Antipsychotics generally act by blocking dopamine D2 receptors. Treatment of schizophrenia with

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Analysis Of The Golden Touch - 1233 Words

â€Å"Sometimes we are so focused on what we want we miss the things we need† (Tew). How do we decide what we want versus what we need? This is a difficult question that everyone struggles with. People often mistake something they want as something they need. When this happens they tend to only use this product for a short time, then it sits in a corner collecting dust for years; that is not something you need. Something you need gets used often and for a long period of time. If it is only used once you probably didn’t really need it. People often collect more than what they need, resulting in an imbalance between want and need. Often people are so blinded by what they want that they don’t realize what might happen if they have too much, this†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬ËœAnd I have lost everything that my heart really cared for’† (Hawthorne). Midas realized that he never needed gold, he just wanted it. Even though this story isn’t real istic it still helps to show that there can be major repercussions from an imbalance between want and need. Someone may not be able to turn things into gold but they may still have more of what they want than need which could result in the loss of something more important to them. In Midas’ case, he got what he wanted the most, more gold, but he lost what he needed, his daughter. These events led Midas to realize that gold was never important and he began to appreciate what he had, instead of what he wanted. People like Midas can lose sight of what’s important when they’re chasing after something that they want. Sometimes these people wish for wealth and will go to any length to get it. In â€Å"The Necklace† Mathilde has everything she needs but wants wealth and would do anything to appear wealthy. .Mathilde buys a new dress for a party for four hundred francs but decides that she needs expensive jewelry too. She borrows what looks like the most expensiv e necklace from her friend, Madame Forestier. Mathilde has the best time at the party and loves the necklace. By the end of the night, Mathilde discovers that she had lost the necklace that she borrowed. She desperately buys a new necklace for 36,000 francs to return to Madame Forestier. She and her husband areShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of King Midas And The Golden Touch1042 Words   |  5 Pagesstudents made comments that they had never seen most of these words before, which makes sense because these words are very specific and are more likely to be seen in social studies content. The five words selected are from the story King Midas and the Golden Touch, which the students will be reading next week, as part of a short story unit. The words were â€Å"adorn, cleanse, lifeless, precious and realm.† When grading the assessment, I felt a bit confused about how I was supposed to grade it and I looked upRead MoreHeart Of The Jackal ( Box 8 )1201 Words   |  5 Pagesapathy and contempt; I drowned myself in liquor; I resigned myself to despair; I cried out for pity and solace. I lamented the life I was robbed. However, in you, Ms. Manette, I found the joy I sought after. Even as I stumbled deeper into despair, the golden threads you weave illuminate even the darkest of depths. You bestow unto me a compassion and warmth I had long forgotten. Your brilliance gleams with hope and tenderness. Your motherly kindness caresses and embraces me, healing my mournful soul asRead More The Golden Apples Essay1128 Words   |  5 PagesIn Eudora Welty’s novel, The Golden Apples, the author presents a combination of short stories to give the readers an insight into the intricacies of human relationships. In doing so, in â€Å"June Recital,† Welty utilizes the separation technique, once again, to give multiple perspectives depending on the different time periods and characters. Moreover, by implementing the textual structure and significance of the MacLain house from the â€Å"Shower of Gold,† the two stories, although separate, have a strongRead MoreConventional Gender Roles Are Embedded Into Our Stories Creating The Idea Of Life Essay1237 Words   |  5 Pagesprincesses into thinking that he is asleep while secretly following them in his invisibility cloak. The gardener discovers that the young princesses secretly go off to a beautiful ball every night and dan ce the night away. He steals three golden branches and a golden cup as proof of the beautiful night that he witnessed. The youngest daughter finds out Peter has discovered their secret when he puts one of the branches in her bouquet. When Peter finally explains to the King what has happened, he presentsRead MoreThe Hidden Meanings Within Michelangelo s The Creation Of Adam2224 Words   |  9 PagesBiblical episode when God creates the first man, Adam. Many people recognize the image of God wrapped in cloth extending his arm and pointing towards a naked figure, Adam, who is equally extending his finger to meet God’s. However, their fingers do not touch. They instead remain electrifyingly close in a way that seems as if their fingers could collide at any moment. While many people recognize the this fresco, many cannot fully understand the meaning behind Michelangelo’s brushstrokes. Even those whoRead MoreThe Symbolism Of A Voyage Gone Wrong1725 Words   |  7 Pagesthree years, if I am not at home, tell them to address them to—(Melville 234). However, it is unclear if the other ship was able to hear Ahab over the rough winds that have just knocked the speaking trumpet from the Albatrosses captains’ hand. Analysis: The few words Ahab speaks to the Albatrosses captain end with the ominous thought of the Pequod not making it home to Nantucket. The foreshadowing of a voyage gone wrong is emphasized not just by the cautionary â€Å"and if I am not at home†¦,† but alsoRead MorePainting Analysis Essay1062 Words   |  5 Pageswill observe a fusion of the realistic tradition of Flemish painting with the imagination and freedom of Italian renaissance painting. The painting expresses Neoplatonic views while also providing the viewer with endless topics for discussion and analysis, making it a true conversation piece. The â€Å"Garden of Love† depicts a scene of passionate festivities. In the painting, a group of aristocratic lovers decorated in the most extravagant of satins and lace are placed in a garden dedicated to VenusRead MoreThe Fight For Animal Rights1660 Words   |  7 Pagesor disease, 4. Freedom to express normal behaviour, and 5. Freedom from fear and distress Moral Arguments Against Harming Animals There have been many moral arguments made against harming animals. These arguments include liberating the animal, analysis of animal rights, and the least harm principle. There are both moral and ethical reasoning as to why we should not harm animals and consider consuming a vegan diet. The concept of least harm studies how many animals would die if we adopted a veganRead MoreRenaissance Corridor On The Second Floor Of The Museum908 Words   |  4 Pagescrafted between the years of 1370-1371 in Florence, Italy during the early renaissance. Against the wishes of the museum I laid my hands upon the painting and felt along both the painting and frame to get a feel for the material. It was grainy to the touch when I moved my hand gently across the painting but I couldn’t make out a specific material. According to the National Gallery of Art’s website, the painting was conceived using vertical grain wood which was lined with fabric with a red bole preparationRead MoreWe Real Cool505 Words   |  3 Pagesis suggestive that the subtitle of â€Å"We Real Cool† specifies the presence of only seven pool players at the â€Å"Golden Shov el.† The eighth â€Å"we† suggests that poet and reader share, on some level, the desperation of the group-voice that Brooks transmits. The final sentence, â€Å"We/ die soon,† restates the carpe diem motif in the vernacular of Chicago’s South Side. Analysis This poem has a touch of freshness of youth mixed with carelessness and the rebellious zeal. It is a small couplet with great use

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Diploma free essay sample

AccountLevel 5 Diploma in Leadership for Health and Social CareCandidate Name: Unit Title: 519 Develop procedures and practice to respond to concerns and complaints |Reflective Account |Assessor Use Only- | | |Assessment Criteria Met| |Candidate to provide narrative under each statement of how they meet the criteria. | | | | |You must provide answers to each question that allow your examiner to properly assess what work duties you are doing or what role you have within your work. It expected that you will | | |need approximately 300 words per question. The more detail you provide the less likely your account will be sent back for more clarification. | | | | | |You must answer each question in your own words and written in the first person meaning â€Å"I do this†. A tip is always to keep in mind the â€Å"who, why, how, where and when† in each answer. | | | | | | | |Learning Outcome 1- Understand the regulatory requirements, codes of practice and relevant guidance for managing concerns and complaints | | |Explain how you identify the regulatory requirements, codes of practice and relevant guidance for managing concerns and complaints in own area of work | | | | | |Explain how you analyse how regulatory requirements, codes of practice and relevant guidance for managing concerns and complaints affect service provision within own area of work | | | | | | | |Learning Outcome 2- Be able to develop procedures to address concerns and complaints | | | | | |2. We will write a custom essay sample on Diploma or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 1 Explain why individuals might be reluctant to raise concerns and make complaints. 2. 2 Outline steps that can be taken to encourage individuals to raise concerns or complaints | | | | | |2. Explain how you work with others in the development of procedures to address concerns and complaints | | | | | |Range | | |This may include. |2. 3 Others: Workers/Practitioners, Carers, Significant others, Other professionals, People who use services | | | | | |2. Explain how you ensure information on how to raise concerns and make complaints is available in accessible formats | | | | | |2. 5 Explain how you review the procedures that have been developed against regulatory requirements, codes of practice and relevant guidance | | | | | |Learning Outcome 3- Be able to lead the implementation of procedures and practice for addressing concerns and complaints | | |3. 1 Explain how you promote a person-centred pproach to addressing concerns and complaints |

Friday, April 10, 2020

Great Gatsby Essays (827 words) - The Great Gatsby, Daisy Buchanan

Great Gatsby The novel The Great Gatsby is set during the 1920's on Long Island, New York. In the novel, by F. Scott Fitzgerald, Gatsby has a dream that a majority people would want to live. The dream is made up of things that may vary from one person to another, but it is still a basic dream for most people. Finding someone that you truly love and that truly loves you back is one part of the dream. Being happy is another. The final part is having wealth and being in the upper class of society. This dream that is pursued by so many can endanger the future of someone because they never know what they would have to go through to get it. Gatsby's main goal throughout the novel is to attain true love with a former love, Daisy Buchanan. He knows that Daisy is married to a rich man, Tom Buchanan, so he uses poor judgement and assumes that becoming rich will win her back. To be close to her and try to increase his chances of being with her, Gatsby moves across the bay to West Egg Island. Nick Carraway, the narrator and Gatsby's main friend throughout the novel, is an acquaintance of the Buchanans and helps set up a meeting between Daisy and Jay. Gatsby finally meets Daisy and begins to spend more time with her, hoping that she will leave her husband for him. At the end of the story, however, Gatsby begins to realize that his love with Daisy would not happen at all. When Gatsby sees Daisy's daughter he realizes the truth. Her marriage is real and he cannot have her. Fitzgerald expresses this by writing, "afterward he kept looking at the child with surprise. I [Nick Carraway] don't think he had ever really believed in her existence before." He also realizes that Daisy likes the status quo and likes the security of being known as Mrs. Buchanan, so she will not leave her husband. Wealth is the only idea in the dream that is obtained by Gatsby, but it doesn't bring him what he expected and desired. Gatsby built up his fortune hoping that his accomplishments would bring him happiness. Once again, Gatsby's lack of in-depth thinking led him to believe that if he attained wealth that Daisy would love him again and leave her husband. He also felt that gaining many material possessions would make him happy, but they never did. He needed reassurance about his possessions, "he hadn't once ceased looking at Daisy, and I think he revalued everything in his house according to the measure of response it drew from her well-loved eyes." Fitzgerald uses irony by having Gatsby's automobile, one of his possessions attained by wealth, lead to his downfall. His unrequited love for Daisy never dies throughout the book and is one of the factors that leads to his death. Happiness, the central part of the dream, is never really obtained by Jay Gatsby throughout the book. In order to try to become happy through friends and fun, Gatsby throws huge parties every week. Despite the fun and excitement at the parties, Gatsby just watched and didn't participate in the activities. This is expressed in a more poetical way when Fitzgerald writes, "A sudden emptiness seemed to flow now from the windows and great doors, endowing with complete isolation the figure of the host, who stood on the porch, his hand waving up in a formal gesture of farewell." Nick is Gatsby's main friend and even he didn't make Gatsby truly happy. The only thing that could make Gatsby truly happy would be attaining his true love, Daisy. Before he went off to fight in the war, Jay was happy because he loved Daisy and Daisy loved him. After serving in the armed forces during war, Gatsby spends the whole novel in an inspiring chase for an unattainable love. Through his failed attempts at love, wealth, and happiness, Gatsby becomes a tragic victim of the dream that so many people desire. Gatsby did all that he could to win Daisy back but always failed and never attained true happiness. He moved near to his love and became friends with her again. He became wealthy and tried to impress her with money. He acquired material things with his wealth and showed them off to prove to Daisy how rich he was. In the end none of it worked out, and Jay Gatsby was even accused by Tom Buchanan of trying to steal

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Linux, the Operating System of Choice

Linux, the Operating System of Choice Introduction In recent years, the global marketplace has witnessed an enormous rise in the use of computers and ultimately the software used in them. Computers have principally made their mark in almost all the spheres of mankind (Kirby, 2000), and with this growth the softwares required for them have also grown at an exponential rate (Kumbhar et al., 2011).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Linux, the Operating System of Choice specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With an abundant rise of the computer industry, new software products keep on creeping in the market, adding more capabilities as well as complexities to the assiduous and conscientious end users. Now, more than ever before, customers or end users have a wide range of software options available at their disposal which can be used for their requirements and/or business purposes (Lone Wani, 2011). As acknowledged by Kumbhar et al (2011), the development of high quality software has followed two main trajectories, namely open source and closed source softwares. A recent trend in the field of software is the open source genre, and it can rightly be said that the Linux operating system has become the embodiment of this genre (Kirby, 2000). The present paper purposes to argue that Linux has not only emerged as a competitor to both Microsoft Windows and Macintosh operating systems, but is a better choice than the other two. Overview the Linux Operating System The history of the Linux operating system can be traced back to 1991 when Linus Torvalds, a student at the University of Finland in Helsinki, decided to develop a UNIX-type operating system called MINIX (McLaren, 2000). Available literature demonstrates that the MINIX platform was initially developed by university student Andrew S. Tannenbaum, but Linus decided to add more functionality into the system than originally proposed by Tannenbaum (Delozier, 2009). As acknowledged by Bala krishnan (1999), Linus â€Å"†¦released version 0.02 of the operating system in 1991 and worked steadily on till 1994 when he released version 1.0 of the Linux Kernel† (p. 3). Eventually, according to this particular author, more and more programmers around the world came together and decided to give a Portable Operating System Interface for Computer Environments (POSIX) compliant UNIX-like system hinged on the founder’s operating system to global users under the GNU General Public License (GPL). Technically, according to MacKinnon (1999), â€Å"†¦Linux just refers to the core of the operating system, the so called kernel, which interacts directly with the hardware and supervises the operation of other programs† (P. 2). However, it is imperative to underline the fact that a fully functional Linux system includes many other components, without which the system would not be of much use. The important fact that makes Linux more appealing than Windows or M ackintosh operating system in this context is that most of these components are entirely non-commercial, and are developed and maintained by thousands of volunteers across the world (Delozier, 2009).Advertising Looking for research paper on computer science? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Growth Trends of Linux Operating System The popularity of Linux, the open source operating system originally developed and launched by Linus Torvalds, has grown noticeably over the past decade, (Delozier, 2009) and even more tenaciously over the past three years (Hong Rezende, 2011). While some sources cited in McLaren (2000) now claim that millions of end-users have already installed Linux on their computers, a report released by the International Data Corporation (IDC) and cited in Kirby (2000) point to a â€Å"†¦rapidly increasing usage of the Linux operating environment among a large sampling of organizations† (p. 85). In 2006, the IDC projected that Linux-based server shipments would reach 25.7% of total shipments by 2008, and that Linux-based packaged software was expected to surpass $14 million the same year (Economides Katsamakas, 2006). In 2006 some studies suggested that the market-share of Linux operating system was around 3% though it was largely anticipated to rise to 7% by 2007 (Economides Katsamakas, 2006). As acknowledged by these authors, the slow growth of Linux in these formative years was largely â€Å"†¦attributed to lack of ease of use, small variety of applications and problems with drivers that [enabled] users to connect other devices to their computing systems† (p. 210). Many of these challenges have been adequately solved by the open source community, making Linux to become the operating system of choice as we progress deeper into the 21st century (Hong Rezende, 2011). Statistics released in 2011 by the IDC demonstrated that Linux server demand was increas ingly growing and represented â€Å"†¦18.4% of all server revenue, up 1.7 points when compared with the fourth quarter of 2010† (Vaughan-Nichols, 2012, para. 2). It is important to note that while the market share for Windows and UNIX-oriented software shrank in 2011, the demand for servers running on Linux open source software grew due to high performance computing (HPC) as well as cloud infrastructure deployments (Vaughan-Nichols, 2012). Available literature demonstrates that â€Å"†¦with a reputation for speed, reliability, and efficiency, GNU/Linux now has more than 12 million users worldwide and an estimated growth rate of 40% per year† (Lone Wani, 2011, p. 166). The market threat of Linux to Microsoft’s and Apple’s proprietary software (Windows and Mackintosh) is becoming more evident because more that 50% of Fortune 500 companies has already made the big switch to GNU/Linux (Lone Wani, 2011).Advertising We will write a custom re search paper sample on Linux, the Operating System of Choice specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Linux: Why it’s a better Choice than Windows or Mackintosh A strand of existing literature (e.g., Hong Rezende, 2011; Lone Wani, 2011) demonstrates that with the recent surge in the use and adoption of Linux operating system by individuals and organizations, it may be just a matter of time before users of Linux eventually outshine those using Microsoft’s and Apple’s proprietary software. This section attempts to demonstrate why Linux is a better choice than Windows or Mackintosh by analyzing several issues, including: code accessibility; cost concerns; security issues; distrust of monopolies; functionality and features; applications; support availability; as well as ease of use and quality. Code Accessibility A predominant attribute of the Linux operating system that differentiates it from Windows, Mackintosh, and other propri etary software is that it is one of the few feasible operating systems whose source code is also easily obtainable as free software under the protocols of the GNU GPL. According to Balakrishnan (1999), â€Å"†¦the GNU GPL is intended to safeguard and guarantee the freedom of any user of free software to share, modify and also share the modified software† (p. 1). This view is reinforced by Mackinnon (1999), who argue that open-source software such as Linux â€Å"†¦is free in the sense that it can be obtained without payment, and it is free in the sense that users are allowed to modify it, but it is not free in the sense that anyone can do whatever they want with it† (p. 2). This orientation, according to Balakrishnan (1999), is in sharp contrast to the authorization agreements given for Windows and Mackintosh commercial software that forbids customers or end-users to distribute or adjust the software without seeking express permission from the parent companies . It can be remembered that â€Å"†¦Apple pioneered the home computer, only to pay the penalty for steadfastly refusing to make its Mackintosh operating system available to users of other PCs† (Daisy, 2004, p. 12). In sharp contrast, Linux software code is freely available online and thus holds the advantage of being entirely customizable to cater for the unique needs and demands of different customers and end-users (Delozier, 2009). According to Daisy (2004), this is precisely the reason why Linux is increasingly becoming the operating system of choice for government-sponsored institutions within emerging countries like China and India who are also using a Sun Systems package instead of the well known Microsoft Office operating system.Advertising Looking for research paper on computer science? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Cost Concerns As noted by McLaren (2000), â€Å"†¦the most obvious way in which Linux differs from Microsoft Windows is in its price: Linux is free† (p.82). Indeed, Linux and many of its components can be downloaded from hundreds of FTP sites on the internet for free because it was developed, and continues to be developed and fine-tuned, by a huge number of hobbyists and enthusiasts from all over the world (Kumbhar et al., 2011). The difference in cost between Linux and other proprietary software such as Windows and Mackintosh makes Linux operating system a very serious contender in the home, business, government, and academic domains (McLaren, 2000). The cost consideration seems to put Linux squarely ahead of other operating systems, including Microsoft’s Windows and Apple’s Mackintosh. Security Issues Security challenges and risks are hurting windows operating system, thereby giving millions of computer users a reason to migrate to Linux (Schryen, 2011). An independent study cited in Economides Katsamakas (2006) demonstrates â€Å"†¦that Linux kernel has 0.17security flaws per 1,000 lines of code, compared to average 10-20 flaws of proprietary software† (p. 211). According to Schryen (2011), the Linux open source software development is credited for preventing extremely bad patching behavior that is repeatedly accused of leading to potentially harmful security vulnerabilities in Windows and Mackintosh operating systems. The way the account privileges are assigned in Linux makes it impossible for users to be given administrator access by default as is the case with Windows (Kumbhar et al., 2011). In Windows, users have access to everything on the system, making it vulnerable to attacks from viruses and worms. However, due to the incapacity by users to get ‘root’ privileges in a Linux system, the viruses and worms are denied access to critical system resources, implying that only a few user local files and pr ograms are damaged in the event of an attack (Noyes, 2010). This in effect means that Linux has more efficient security features than either Windows or Mackintosh and therefore is a better choice. Distrust of Monopolies One of the reasons that continue to draw more customers into the Linux fold is the modicum of distrust associated with Microsoft. As noted by McLaren (2000), Microsoft is viewed by many enlightened software consumers as an undemocratic organization because it has â€Å"†¦too much money, too much control, [and] too much industry influence† (p. 82). This author bravely contend that monopolies are not good for consumers and Microsoft is a monopoly in the software market due to too much control and too much influence on the industry. In sharp contrast, there is no â€Å"corporation† or â€Å"influence† behind Linux as it is a grassroots operating system that has the interests of customers and end-user organizations at heart (McLaren, 2000). Func tionality Features Theoretically, the fact that Linux is a fully-fledged operating system makes it â€Å"†¦a viable alternative to any other operating systems, including DOS, Windows, UNIX, NetWare, and so on† (McLaren, 2000, p. 82). Extant literature demonstrates that â€Å"†¦Linux does true multitasking and includes virtual memory, shared libraries, demand loading, memory management, TCP/IP networking and other features that are available with current full featured commercial operating systems† (Balakrishnan, 1999, p. 1). In multi-tasking, the Linux operating system allows manifold programs to share a computer system that give the end-user the illusion that the programs are running simultaneously either preemptively or cooperatively (Schryen, 2011). Virtual memory, according to Balakrishnan (1999), â€Å"†¦is a scheme employed by the operating system to provide means of executing programs whose code occupy more space than the size of the on-board sem iconductor memory† (p. 2). The Linux operating system is capable of accomplishing this important function by provisionally managing recently used constituents of a program from memory into the system’s hard disk and replicating them back on demand (Delozier, 2009). When combined with Linux’s low initial purchase price and an ever-increasing number of enterprises willing to provide fee-based technical support for Linux, these two features provide a compelling reason for customers and end-user companies to consider Linux as an effective and efficient alternative to commercial operating systems such as Windows and Macintosh (Kirby, 2000). Moving on, it is imperative to mention that shared libraries are used with dynamic linking in the Linux open source software not only to distribute commonly used routines but also to achieve efficiency and reliability. As suggested by Balakrishnan (1999), â€Å"†¦each reference to a library routine is replaced with a stub tha t indicates how the appropriate routine can be located in memory† (p. 2). A stub primarily executes/implements and substitutes itself with the signature of the suitable library schedule, meaning that the next time round a similar code fragment is triggered the library schedule is executed/implemented directly with no additional outlay of situating the memory-resident sector of the library (Balakrishnan, 1999). The overall effect of this functionality is that Linux operating system is efficient in optimizing resources and therefore runs faster on slow computers (Kirby 2000). Proprietary software such as Windows has this functionality but is expensive to purchase and heavy on slow computers, ultimately affecting efficient optimization of resources (Loni Wani, 2011). Additionally, The Linux operating system has the demand loading functionality, which is basically â€Å"†¦a method of loading only parts of the program that is currently being executed into primary memory (RAM ) from secondary memory (disk)† (Balakrishnan, 1999, p. 2). In memory management, the Linux operating system bears the capability to share â€Å"†¦the memory in a computer system among several programs or several programs or several modules of the same program† (Balakrishnan, 1999, p. 2). Applications Many computer users all over the world think that the most obvious drawback for Linux operating system must be the sustained lack of software applications that run on the system. However, this belief is further from the truth as â€Å"†¦there are thousands of applications that will run on Linux, and most of these are also free, from Web browsers to word processors to spreadsheets† (McLaren, 2000, p. 83). The OpenOffice.org, which is an office software suite incorporating word processing, spreadsheet, presentation and drawing applications, runs well on the Linux platform and has inherent advantages when compared to the Windows Microsoft Office package not o nly because it utilizes XML file formats, but also because it is open source and multiplatform (Wusteman, 2004). Additionally, while it is often difficult for users to read a document using a previous version of Word software because Microsoft is yet to provide filters on its Web site, the OpenOffice.org appears to have no difficulty in availing filters for all versions of Microsoft’s Word currently in use (Wusteman, 2004). This predisposition, in scope and context, implies that Linux is a better choice than Windows. Other end-users believe that although Linux is supported by many applications, it is incredibly hard to use these applications and probably this is the sole reason why the operating system is being held back by Microsoft Windows in terms of competition (Karimi Noori, 2011). However, as noted by McLaren (2000), â€Å"†¦Linux has a number of GUI shells that can be loaded over the top of the command line interface (just as Windows 98 was loaded over DOS) that will give it a Windows look and feel† (p. 83). Two of the most recognized shells used by Linux, according to this author, include the K Desktop Environment (KDE) and Gnome, not mentioning that Linux has an actual Windows emulator available called WINE. This view is reinforced by Economides and Katsamakas (2006), who observe that â€Å"Linux has been mostly an operating system for power-users who have Unix-like skills but this may change since the open source community is developing several friendly user interfaces such as KDE† (p. 210). These applications, it is argued, make Linux unbelievably easy to use for computer amateurs (Loni Wani, 2011). Extant literature demonstrates that Linux operating system has in recent years emerged as a viable competitor to other proprietary operating systems, such as Microsoft Windows, Mackintosh and other commercial implementations of UNIX, primarily due to its solid support systems (Choi et al., 2007), as well as multifaceted functi onalities (Delozier, 2009). Indeed, as postulated by Kirby (2000), â€Å"†¦Linux provides a robust, stable computing environment on a variety of architectures including Intel X86, SPARC, and Alpha† (p. 85). Overall, these capabilities have made it possible for a substantial number of desktop and server applications to be ported to Linux (Kirby, 2000), making it the operating system of choice in the 21st century. Support Availability McLaren (2000) is clear in his analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of Linux that â€Å"†¦it will fail precisely because it does not have the one characteristic that causes so many to hate Microsoft Windows: a huge corporation backing it up† (p. 83). Microsoft Windows users can escalate challenges discovered at their workstations or mission-critical servers to Microsoft technical support on a 24/7 basis, but it may not be possible for Linux users to receive immediate support to deal with their challenges because the system is developed by a global team of enthusiasts and lobbyists who appear thrillingly uncontrolled and unregulated (Schryen, 2011). It may take a while for Linux users to get the kind of guarantees of system compatibility and stability provided by Windows and Macintosh operating systems (Apple Computers, Inc., 1997; Daisy, 2004), but this incapacity does not necessarily implies that Linux is simply inoperable due to support hitches (Economides Katsamakas, 2006). On the contrary, millions of users across the world are making the switch to Linux operating system due to small startup companies like Red Hat and Caldera that are beginning to get into the support act for Linux for a small fee (McLaren, 2000). More importantly, according to McLaren (2000), â€Å"†¦is the interest that industry juggernauts like IBM and Hewlett Packard are starting to pay to Linux support† (p. 84). It has been reported in the literature that multinational computer company IBM is investing billions of dollars in Linux operating system and backing its distributors/ suppliers such as Red Hat and Novell (Moranda, 2005). Available projections indicate that Linux may have a global support platform by 2015 (Delozier, 2009), further demonstrating that it is increasingly becoming the operating system of choice due to a multiplicity of variables that put Windows and Mackintosh operating systems at a distinct disadvantage, such as cost overruns and limitations of use (Hong Rezende, 2011). Even so, users must be cautious that it may take a very long duration of time before these companies demonstrate any support capabilities which may be equated to Microsoft’s or Apple’s knowledge base (Weber, 2007). Ease of Use Quality Extant literature demonstrates that Linux is â€Å"†¦far easier to use out of the box than any proprietary version of UNIX, partly because it comes with so many useful programs already installed† (MacKinnon, 1999, p.3). It is noted in the liter ature that most of these programs, including the comprehensive GNU tool kit, can be easily downloaded and installed on any adaptation of UNIX but fulfilling this command would generally consume time and effort (Delozier, 2009). Additionally, it is important to note that â€Å"†¦commercial training and support are available for most widely used OSS [open source software] such as Linux and Apache† (Wusteman, 2004, p. 232). In terms of quality, extant literature demonstrates that the approach used in the development of Linux â€Å"†¦can result in software of higher quality and greater stability than that of many commercial rivals† (Wusteman, 2004, p. 232). Additionally, according to this particular author, the Linux operating system avail a Web site and discussion lists for users and programmers, as well as other documentation which assists to improve the quality attributes of the open source software when compared to either Windows or Mackintosh. Conclusion Fro m the ongoing, it is indeed clear that Linux has gained much acceptance from users for a number of reasons. Indeed, the growth of Linux operating system in the global marketplace augurs well when factors such as code accessibility, cost concerns, security issues, functionality and features, as well as applications, ease of use, and quality issues are concerned. Although Microsoft has evolved to become the dominant force in the computer software sector for almost a generation (Moranda, 2005), a sense of their decimation of the competition in the operating systems sector tends to be the prevailing feeling among mainstream commentators due to the increasing use and adoption of Linux by individuals and organizations across the world. While Microsoft and Apple face challenges of their own and their dominance even in operating systems business seems not secure, Linux is increasingly becoming popular among users and governmental organizations in the developing world not only due to its low cost solution, but also its efficiency, security and enhanced functionalities. Indeed, it is now correct to say that Linux has not only emerged as the new threat to Microsoft and Apple in developing markets, but will soon surpass them and become the incumbent operating system of choice. Reference List Apple Computer, Inc. (1997). 75 Mackintosh advantages: Why mackintosh computers are better than PCs running windows. Retrieved from 13idol.com/mac/75reasons.pdf Barakrishnan, S. (1999). The Linux operating system. Retrieved from ias.ac.in/resonance/Apr1999/pdf/Apr1999Balakrishnan.pdf Choi, C.J., Millar, C.J.M., Chu, R.T.J. Berger, R. (2007). Increasing returns and marketing strategy in the twenty-first century: Nokia versus Microsoft versus Linux. Journal of business Industrial Marketing, 22(5), 295-301. Daisy, L.M. (2004). What does the future hold for Intel, Apple and Microsoft? Big three face new challenges ahead. Strategic Direction, 20(11), 10-13. Delozier, E.P. (2009). The GNU /Linux desktop: An open source primer for libraries. OCLC Systems Services, 25(1), 35-42. Economides, N Katsamakas, E. (2006). Linux vs. Windows: A comparison of application and platform innovation incentives for open source and proprietary software platforms. Journal of Econometrics 85(2), 207-217. Hong, S.H., Rezende, L. (2011). Lock-in and unobserved preferences in server operating systems: A case of Linux vs. Windows. Journal of Econometrics, 167(2), 494-503. Karimi, A., Noori, A. (2011). Threads in the operating systems. International Journal of Academic Research, 3(2), 1008-1013. Kirby, S. (2000). Free to Choose: The real power of Linux. Library Hi Tech, 18(1), 85-88. Kumbhar, S.S., Ghotkar, S.N., Tumma, A.K. (2011). Appraisal and dissemination of open source operating systems and other utilities. Trends in Information Management, 7(2), 154-162. Lone, M.I., Wani, Z.A. (2011). Analysis of operating systems and browsers: A usage metrics. Trends in Information Management, 7 (2), pp. 163-175. MacKinnon, J.G. (1999). The Linux operating system: Debian GNU/Linux. Retrieved from http://qed.econ.queensu.ca/faculty/mackinnon/linux-review.pdf McLaren, S. (2000). Linux: A viable alternative or direct mirage? Library Hi Tech, 18(1), 82-84. Moranda, M.I. (2005). Microsoft’s fighting future: software giant’s dilemmas and lessons in ring craft. Strategic Direction, 21(10), 5-8. Noyes, K. (2010). Why Linux is more secure than Windows. PC World. Retrieved from pcworld.com/businesscenter/article/202452/why_linux_is_more_secure_than_windows.html Schryen, G. (2011). Is open source security a myth? Communications of the ACM, 54(5), 130-140. Vaughan-Nichols, S. (2012). Linux servers keep growing, windows UNIX keep shrinking. Retrieved from zdnet.com/blog/open-source/linux-servers-keep-growing-windows-and-unix-keep-shrinking/10616 Weber, R.M. (2007). I (mostly) love my Mac. Journal of Financial Service Professionals, 61(2), 34-36. Wusteman, J. (2004). Poten tially ridiculous. Library Hi Tech, 22(2), 231-237.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

The Good Earth by Pearl S Bucks Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The Good Earth by Pearl S Bucks - Essay Example As with the ox, Wang Lung is reduced to a passive role, burying the infant and contemplating, in so far as hes able, his wifes striking drive to live (Baw 16). This is actually one of the more tragic events that occur in this book. After the birth of her latest child in this chapter, when Wang Lung goes into his wifes room to see how she is and how the baby is, O-Lan tells him that the girl child has died, with the simple word "dead"(Baw 24) However, Wang Lung heard the baby cry after it was born, and so he is somewhat suspicious. When he takes the babys body and sees two â€Å"dark, bruised spots" (Baw 24) on the neck of his daughter, he understands that his wife, driven by desperation of the poverty and want that his family were facing, actually killed her own daughter to spare her a life of starvation and slow, grinding death. Wang Lungs response to this is a sign of the depth of his despair (Baw 23). During the period of the devastating drought and famine, the family has to flee to the south in a large city to find work for them to survive. Wang Lung’s uncle, for significantly lesser value, offers to buy his possessions and land. Expect for the house and land, everything else is sold by the family (Baw 17). Wang Lung later found out that O-lan had a bundle that contained many jewels that were very precious. She had come by the jewels when she, together with her husband, happened to be in a house of a rich man. Wang Lung used the jewels to buy more land (Baw 16). Then there came successive prosperity years and Wang Lung became very rich landowner and farmer. He then decided to educate his sons, ware of the disadvantages of his illiteracy. He now had a boy and girl- twins, apart from the daughter and two sons they had before they went south (Baw 18). Much of Wang Lung changed after he got rich- his attitude, his personality as well as his family life. He started having affairs. He was